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DANCE STYLES


Extensive information about the most important dance styles given within the Danshuis, classical ballet, modern dance, and jazzdance.



Classical Ballet

Classical ballet is the oldest form of ballet. It originated in France and became famous by King Louis XIV who gave many parties and was a lover of dancing. In 1661 the first ballet academy was founded by King Louis XIV. The courtmen used to dance at parties to entertain people. Then it really became a sport.

"high with the legs waving". Many of the ballet techniques resemble those of fencing (such as the position of the feet) because ballet and screens were developed around the same period or because you need a good sense of balance and movement for both of them. It is said that Domenico da Piacenza was the first to use the term ballo instead of danza (dance) for his baletti that later became known as his Ballets. The real first ballet performance was probably that of Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx at Ballet Comique de la Royne (1581). In 1581 Fabritio Caroso wrote Il Ballarino, a manual for ballet techniques that made Italy a great center in the field of ballet development


Het ballet heeft zijn wortels in de Renaissance-hofschouwspelen van Italië, maar werd verder ontwikkeld door het Franse ballet de cour, die bestond uit sociale dansen opgevoerd door de adel met muziek, toespraken, gedichten, liederen, spectakel, decor en kostuum. Het ballet ontwikelde zich meer als een afzonderlijke kunstvorm in Frankrijk tijdens het heerschappij van Loudewijk XIV, die hartstochtelijk bezig was met dans en vastbesloten om de daling in interesse ervoor, tijdens de 17de eeuw, om het tij te doen keren. De koning richtte de Académie Royale de Danse op in 1661, hetzelfde jaar waarin het eerste ballet, die door Jean-Baptist Lully werd gecomponeerd werd uitgevoerd. Deze vroege vorm bestond uit een stuk waarin de scènes door dansen werden gescheiden. Lully hield zich ook bezig met het trainen van professionele dansers in de Académie Royale de Musique, waar de instructie gebaseerd waren op noble houding en manieren.

The 18th century was a period of enormous progress in the techniques of ballet and also the period where ballet became a serious dramatic art form together with the Opera. Central to this progress was the rudimentary work of Jean-Georges Noverre, Lettres sur la danse et les ballets (1760), which focused on the development of the ballet d'action, in which the movements of the dancers were designed to express character. print and further depict the story. The reforms were also made in composition by composers such as Christoph Glück. Finally, ballet was divided into three groups: sérieux, demi-caractère and comique. Ballet was also used in operas as interruptions for the various scenes.

The 19th century was a period of great social change, reflected in the ballet by a shift away from the aristocracy that had previously dominated the ballet. Ballerinas such as Marie Taglioni and Fanny Elssler introduced new techniques such as the point techniques that increased their awareness. Professional librettists incorporated stories into ballet performances and teachers such as Carlo Blasis recorded the technology in the basic form that is still used today. The popularity of ballet began to decline in most parts of the western world after 1850, but remained essential in Denmark and, especially, in Russia thanks to masters like Augustus Bournonville, Jules Perrot and Marius Petipa. Russian companies, after the Second World War, undertook multiple trips around the world, making it popular again. It is one of the best kept dances in the world.

Dance-wear
Usually the girls (women) wear a black ballet suit, pink tights, waistband and (sometimes) leg warmers. A waistband is an elastic waistband that you have at the height of your waist. With that you can see if you are standing right and how high you have to hold your arms when you dance. Leg warmers are only to keep warm, after the warm-up they can go out. Girls often wear black or pink leather / fabric ballet shoes.

Foot positions
The classical ballet has the following positions:
- Parallel - here the feet are at hip width.
- 1st position - you put your heels together.
- 2nd position - you do the 1st position and slide out (so that there is about 2 feet in between)
- 3rd position - you slide your heel into the instep of the other foot.
- 4th position - you do the 3rd position and slide 10 cm forward
- 5th position - front foot closes to the back. Both feet are sometimes parallel to each other, the only correct 5th position is this position if you do not force yourself.
Usually the third position is only used with the younger ballerinas and is skipped with the older ones and they immediately take the 5th position.

Structure of the lesson
During the French classes there is usually started with warm-ups on the ground, followed by warm-ups at the barre (this is often a wooden stick, which you support with the exercises, it is attached to the wall, or stands on pedestals). ). At the barre especially the calf and leg muscles are trained to prevent injuries. During the Russian ballet classes, a warm-up at the barre started, followed by warm-ups on the ground. Some examples of exercises at the barre are:
- pliés (knee bends)
- relevé, standing on the toes, keeping balance
- port de bras, "carrying the arms" (arm-postures), together with head and upper body
- cambré, smooth bends of the upper body together with arm movements
- tendu, tendu's (foot stretched or stretched to the beat of the music)
- around the jambe (circles of stretched leg with 1 foot to the ground or loose from the ground, with bent work-leg)
- directions in space, and avant, and arrière, à la second, effacée, croisé, écarté
- fondu (means "melting", movements in which two legs bend or stretch at the same time)
- passé, raise one leg bent
- sur le cou de pied, pull one foot low against another foot, around
- frappé (hitting, knocking) fast, fierce movement of leg, expand and re-enter
- serré, very rapid shaking movement of one foot against the ankle, the work leg remains bent
- développé, slowly and high expand one leg
- arabesque, keep one leg in the air
- arabesque penchée, leg behind high in the air where the upper body bends far forward
- attitude, keeping one leg bent upwards
- grand battement, vigorously one leg stretched out
- pied à la main, foot in the hand, leg stretch with the foot of the working leg
- spagat, one leg in front, one leg behind, legs stretch, where one sits on the floor, legs in angle of 180 degrees
Next in the hall, apart from the barre, fast and slow combinations of passes, with the names allégro (fast), adagio (slow) and on the diagonal, for example, fast twisting and jumping.

Some names of techniques are:
- temps lié
- pas de basque
- balancé, glissade
- changement
- chassé
- pas de chat
- pas de bourrée
- échappé
- jeté
- assemblé
- pirouette
- fouetté
- piqué
- déboulé
- cabriole
- couru
- grand jeté

Spot
When ballet dancers / dancers turn a pirouette, they quickly move their heads around. In doing so, they use a spot: this is a place (for example in the decor) that they focus on while they are running. This does not make one dizzy. They keep staring at the point as long as they can, until their bodies no longer allow it. Then they quickly turn their heads in the opposite direction and concentrate on the spot again.

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Modern Dance

Modern dance returned to primitive principles; the body serves as an expression and means of communication. The emotions and psychology of twentieth century man became decisive for modern dance and for the way in which the musculature had to be trained. Besides Martha Graham, Doris Humphrey, Charles Weidman, Helen Tamaris, and Hanya Holm were among the pioneers.

Modern dance originated in the beginning of the twentieth century, when people started looking for different forms of movement than those of classical ballet. The innovations in Western ballet, the rise of modern dance and jazz dance are developments that for a large part ran parallel. From the beginning of the last century, dance art has been very much in motion. With the rise of modern dance Isadora Duncan played a major role.

After a classical ballet study, she went her own way, strongly opposing the ballet conventions. For her, individual artistic expression in dance was primary. The dance approach of Isodora Duncan was in a way closer to the pantomime than to ballet. She has inspired many dancers and choreographers in the search for new forms of dance. Although the rise of modern dance has been inspired by her, her influence has not been decisive. In 1904 she founded a school in Berlin from which her approach became more and more known.

In 1905 Duncan made her debut in Russia, where she elicited a lot of discussion in the world of ballet because her views were in line with those of the avant-gardists in Russian dance art. For example Michel Fokine, who later became the pacesetter of the renewal in ballet. Two other innovators were Ruth St.Denis and Ted Shawn, from the Dennisshawn school, founded in 1915. The school was the cradle of modern dance in the United States. Martha Graham left the Denisshawn Company in 1923 because she felt artistically out of place. After being a revival dancer for two years, she became a teacher and in 1926, together with her pupils, she gave performances that are now regarded as the first manifestation of modern dance. Modern dance developed especially in the 1930s. Graham perfected her modern dance technique and since then modern dance has become a new discipline alongside ballet.

The Graham Technique

What Graham is best known for was her way of dancing, which was expressionistic and experimental in nature. She developed her own technique, which is also called the 'Graham technique'. This technique is based on the rhythm of breathing. Dancing from the belly is also central. Your belly forms the center of your body and also the center of your feeling. The basis of the Graham technique is formed by stretching and relaxing muscles, also known as 'contraction' and 'release'.

The technique developed by Graham was therefore at odds with the academic (classical) ballet. Did the classical ballet consist of strict prescriptions on how the dance had to be designed, Graham took the feeling as a motive. Another big contrast was formed by the footwear that was used. In the academic ballet it was common to wear spitzen, with which the dancer could come loose from the earth and as it were could float. Graham, however, danced barefoot to keep contact with the ground as much as possible.

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Jazzdance

Originally jazz dance comes from France and the USA. It started in France with the classical ballet. You had to put a very tight knot in your hair, because nothing was allowed to come into your face. You had to give a tutut (if you gave a performance), the upper was made of tight fabric and stretchable fabric. Jazzballet does not really have much to do with jazz music, because music is used to dance on everything, from the Spicegirls to The Rolling Stones. Under the name of jazz ballet there are many styles, you could actually say that every choreographer and dancer can have their own style.

The jazz dance therefore lends itself to different styles, techniques and applications. The musical and showdance is a direction in jazz dance and there are many points of contact with popular dance forms. The character of jazz dance is eclectic, that is, it chooses movement elements from other dance techniques and styles. These elements are combined in the dance training and choreography with the characteristic authentic jazz elements. For example the application of ethnic themes of African and Caribbean origin. Katherine Dunham and Pearl Primus both anthropologists based much of their choreographic work on ethnic themes.

Black dancers went looking for a new artistic content for their dance towards the end of the twenties. They reverted to various historical elements of black culture. The first performances in which jazz dance choreography and performance was central was the "Dance concert" of the "Negro Art Theater Dance Group" by Hemseley Winfield in April 1931. The choreographies were inspired by the early southern spirituals, an aspect that had never before been used for dance . John Martin, an authoritative reviewer, called the concert "The outstanding novelty of the dance season". Hemseley Winfield was a pioneer in jazz dance choreography. Because of his approach that was partly rooted in the resistance of modern dance to traditional ballet, the "Dance Spiritual" has become a concept. Attempts were also made by others to derive choreographic inspiration from traditional cultural themes, for example in reconstructions of original African ritual dance from the period of slavery.

There is also a jazz ballet. The movements and technique do not follow those of classical ballet. They are clearly freer to the older classical ballet and based on popular music (jazz, rock, hip hop, etc.). Jazz dance is a young branch in the contemporary dance field and uses different dance forms. One of the elements that distinguish jazz dance from other dance forms is the use of the insulation technique. This means that a part of the body can move independently of the rest of the body, for example the head, the shoulder, or the ribcage (spinal column), or in combination with other parts of the body that also move independently again. The basic technique of jazz dance uses the foundations of ballet, modern dance, tap dance, black dance, etc. the turkey trot, monkey, chicken scratch, kangaroo dip, bunny hug and later the black bottom, the shim sham shimmy and the lindy hops.

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